Monday, 3 July 2017

Top 7 Trendy 2017 Social Media Plugins

Credit: stock. It can't be helped. The times may be dire in 2012, but you can be certain online marketing has still much possible ways to reach. How to Keep Track of Your BusinessHattie introduces Jim Schell and the first of the seven i7 Group key ideas within this episode.

If My Space isn't your cup of tea though, there are still hundreds, probably thousands of other great social and business networking sites you can join. Link shrinkers are wonderful tools to downsize your links. Task management is supplied with social network communication. Private label rights provide you with the privilege to utilize someone's product. Title - needs being catchy along with a description of exactly what the video is about.

Check out for problems that might occur, for this you are able to use online tools like Google alert giving details about y our brand on internet. Quality is definitely important in the wedding it comes to an advertising video because if a video isn't quality then it will not be shared. You might also be one of these individuals in the event you are serious about producing money online.

Use these guidelines above each time you want to publish a brand new video, and you're pretty much guaranteed a great deal of people to your site from your effort. It can bring your website and your company to completely new level. There are videos that receive a great deal of traffic on a normal basis. They will provide you with access to a greater experience and can assistance to add many new patients for the referral roaster of your medical office.

You may also like: VTG and Video Traffic Genius Bonus. The most common cause is the fact that your DNS settings are incorrect. This can be put into practice by creating a television advert which has a follow-up YouTube advert, as well as the traditional direct marketing techniques can be followed up with a few digital marketing techniques. Work hard in your blog and don't give up inside the early stages of its development. When creating video clips to market services and products online be sure you not make them overly promotional, position the URL in the video and description field, and i7 group review also provide your viewers good reasons to see your site.

Sunday, 25 June 2017

10 Questions to Ask Before Hiring a Landscape Designer

If you're considering working with a landscape designer, finding the right fit -- and avoiding surprises midway through the project -- is largely about knowing which questions to ask upfront and being familiar with the range of services these professionals provide.

We reached out to four seasoned landscape professionals -- Peter Reader of Peter Reader Landscapes in London, Beth Mullins of Growsgreen Landscape Design in San Francisco, John Algozzini of K&D Landscape Management in Chicago and June Scott of June Scott Design in Southern California -- to get the inside scoop on the range of services available and the 10 essential questions potential clients should ask before hiring a professional for the job.

First, get your ducks in a row. Before reaching out to a professional, write a wish list for your garden remodel, establish your priorities and budget, and decide which parts of the process you'd like to hire a pro for help. With this on paper, you'll have a clear sens e of what you're looking for in a designer before you begin to contact professionals.

10 Questions to Ask Before Hiring a Landscape Designer

1. What services do you offer? First and foremost, determine what services a landscape designer offers to see if he or she is the right person for your project."The best question a potential client can ask is: 'Are you experienced with the scope of work we want, and can you design and manage it?'" Algozzini says.

Generally speaking, landscape designers fall into one of three categories, depending on the services they offer:

Design only. Some designers specialize only in the design process. This typically includes a site analysis and discussion of a client's needs, a preliminary design, revisions based on your feedback, and a final detailed master plan for your garden. This detailed planting plan and construction docu ment is then handed over to you (or a landscape contractor of your choosing) to take it from there.

Design-build. Others offer the design service described above, as well as overseeing plant purchase and all installation. Contractors are needed for permitting and hardscape installation -- sometimes the landscape designer is also a registered contractor, and other times they have landscape contractors on their team or ones to recommend and oversee.

RELATED: Choose From the Best Design-Build Firms

Full service -- design-build and maintenance program. For the highest-touch service, some landscape designers will offer all the above, plus oversee ongoing maintenance of the garden.

2. Can I see examples of your past work? "Consider the style of the designer in relation to the garden you want," Reader says. "If you want a modern, clean-lined city garden, have they designed any before? Or if you are looking for a cottage-style garden, do they have the plant knowl edge to deliver?"

Alternatively, if a designer's portfolio doesn't include the particular style you're looking for, check out his or her credentials for evidence of the training to make the vision of your garden a reality. Degrees from accredited landscape design colleges and memberships in professional organizations are both good indicators.

3. Do you offer garden consultations? Some landscape designers will offer one- to two-hour garden consultations. During this meeting, a designer will typically come over to your property, join you for a walk around the garden, listen to what you'd like to accomplish with your remodel and begin to bounce some ideas around for the design.

This is a great opportunity for you to determine whether you have a fit with the designer, and for the designer to see if he or she fits with you as a client. "It is important for a client to determine what role they want to play," Mullins says. "Are they interested in a collaboration, [want to] defer completely to the designer or have a clear idea for their garden and just want someone to implement it?"

Don't expect an initial consult to be free of charge -- it is, after all, two hours of a professional's time -- though some designers will put the consult fee toward the cost of the design if you end up hiring them.

4. What ideas do you have for our garden? After you've shared your wish list and budget with the designer, and the designer has had a chance to view your property, ask what vision the designer has for your landscape. Designers have different mediums of presenting their ideas for your landscape, ranging from a collage-style mood board with inspiration images for plants and hardscape materials to a two-dimensional, to-scale drawing created with a CAD program or by hand.

This is the time to speak up about what you like and dislike in the d esign or if you see anything that's missing from your wish list -- for example, more space for tool storage, room to grow vegetables or an area with shade. Following this meeting, a designer will draw up a revised design drawing based on your feedback.

5. What is your process? A designer's process depends on the services he or she offers (see question 1). Get to know the process -- and whether you or the designer is responsible for overseeing each step -- from the beginning so that you'll know what to expect once the project is underway. If you're hiring a designer who specializes in design only, ask yourself whether you have the time or experience necessary to oversee the project installation or if the designer has contractors to recommend.

As a responsible client, you also need to be honest with a landscape designer regarding your budget for the project. "Knowing a budget beforehand is crucial," Mullins says. "It doesn't mean that a designer needs to spend the budget but dictates what [he or she] can realistically design for." If a look you like is over your budget, designers often have creative ways to stretch your budget and give you the best garden for your space.

6. What is the estimated cost? Clear communication regarding the estimated cost of the project and your budget is essential. Ask your designer for a range of cost for both the design and the installation. Most installation estimates are drawn up by a contractor based on the cost per square foot of installing areas of hardscape outlined on the plan for th e yard.

Scott shares another key question to ask your designer: "How are changes in scope handled during the design and installation process?" Given that unanticipated design changes often come up midproject, it's important to be clear on whether a designer will charge additional fees for the time it takes to change the design plan or installation.

7. Are there any ways to reduce cost? Pathways, patios, retaining walls and decks are generally more expensive than planted garden areas, so the more hardscape there is in the design, the more it's likely going to cost to install. Plus, the materials used for hardscape can vary widely for both the product and the installation.

It's best to have a conversation with a designer when you are discussing the initial plan about ways to reduce the cost of the landscape to stay on budget. The designer will have ideas about where you can save money without compromising style, and what elements are worth a splurge.

8. How long will installation take? The time it takes to design and install a landscape depends on a number of factors: size and scope of the project, availability of contractors and other installation specialists, ordering and delivery times for materials and plants, dry weather for laying hardscape, and unexpected setbacks during installation. Instead of asking a landscape designer to have the installation done by a certain date, ask for an estimated range for the project to be completed.

As eager as you may be to enjoy your new landscape, keep in mind that skilled installation of hardscape and careful planting takes time. "While landscaping on TV is inspirational and great entertainment, the actual site work rarely has a team of 24 [people] working around the clock," Algozzini says. "High-quality work is both art and science, and takes time to install."

RELATED: How to Work With a Landscape Professional

9. When will the garden grow in? The time it takes for a garden to grow in depends on the scope of the design, what types of plants are proposed and how mature the plants are when they're planted. A smaller area with ornamental grasses and perennials can grow in within a single season, but larger and more complex designs with trees and large shrubs can take years to reach maturity. Ask your designer which plants make sense to splurge for semimature specimens (like focal-point trees or shrubs needed for screening) and which plants can be purchased small and fill in quickly (like most ground covers, vegetables and ornamental grasses).

10. How much maintenance will it take to keep the garden looking good? Different styles of gardens and plants require very different levels of care. Be upfront with your landscape designer about how much maintenance you are willing to commit -- either your own time or that of a hired gardener -- going forward. Once you've invested in hiring a landscape designer and installing a garden, you'll want to keep your landscape alive and flourishing for years to come. Ask your landscape designer if he or she has recommended maintenance gardeners or specialists to take care of the garden going forward.

Friday, 16 June 2017

13 Funniest Dog vs. Sprinkler Videos

From unfamiliar visitors to pesky local wildlife, man's best friend would do anything to protect us from potential harm. Even if that potential harm comes in the form of a sprinkler.

Deep down we appreciate their steadfast and earnest guardianship, of course, but we can't help Sprinkler Installation but laugh when these heroic pups are thwarted time and again Sprinkler Installation by their elusive grass-watering enemies. So in celebration of our four-legged warriors, we searched for some of the funniest dog vs. sprinkler battles on the Web. Vote for your favorites below!

Sped Up, But Still Hilarious

Thursday, 15 June 2017

A Deadly Threat to Biodiversity

Pollution caused by sewage water is one of the major problems in cities the world over. Sewage water is drained off into rivers without treatment. Careless disposal of sewage water leads to creation of a chain of problems like spreading of diseases, eutrophication, increase in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), etc.

The water used for domestic, industrial and other purposes gets converted into waste water. It is termed as sewage water. In ideal conditions, sewage water is channeled or piped out of cities so that it can be recycled. Sewage contains organic wastes as well as chemicals. The pollution of water occurring from sewage is mainly observed in developing countries. In these countries, sewage water is not disposed in a proper manner. In developed nations, a network of sewage pipes is used to take sewage away from cities. Treatment of waste minimizes pollution resulting from it. However, even in developed countries, the older cities may have sewage systems that are leaky.

Main Causes of Sewage Water Pollution

Improper handling of waste water is the main reason behind water getting polluted. Sewage is drained off in large quantities to rivers. It slows down the process of dilution of constituents of water; this in turn stagnates the river. It may also result into spread of diseases like diarrhea, typhoid, etc.

Draining off water without treatment is one of the major causes of pollution. Effluents present in sewag e water contain innumerable pathogens and harmful chemicals. Detergents released in water contain phosphates and they allow the growth of algae and water hyacinths.

Sewage pollution is not always man-made or the result of human negligence. There are times when sewage systems receive flows greater than their capacity. It takes place in times of heavy rains. The excess flow of water results into overflowing of sewage systems; this in turn leads to sewage pollution.

Ill-effects of Sewage Pollution

The different ways in which sewage pollution affects our life can be found below. These details should offer insights on how to control the menace of water pollution caused by haphazard disposal of sewage into freshwater bodies and oceans.

Effects on Health

Pathogens present in sewage water are responsible for spreading different kinds diseases. Stagnant water fosters the growth of mosquitoes, which in turn causes diseases like malaria. Another disease which originates from contaminated water is typhoid. Sewage water may also contain protozoans like Cryptosporium and Giardia. These pathogens pose a great risk to human health. Therefore, polluted water acts as a host to several pathogenic microbes.


The process of excessive deposition of chemical nutrients in water bodies is termed as eutrophication. It is one of the many problems which have their origin in sewage water pollution. Degradation of the quality of water, reduction in number of fish and increase in biological oxygen demand (BOD) are major effects or consequences of eutrophication. Increase in the concentration of phosphates, nitrates and other chemicals including organic wastes in water bodies causes excessive growth of algae and bacteria. Growth of such organisms is responsible for increase in BOD and thereby, reduction in the number of aquatic creatures. The growth of native plants is also hampered by excessive algal growth.

Harmful Effec ts on Environment

Toxins released in rivers through sewage water are consumed by fish and other aquatic organisms; thus, the possibility of toxins entering the food chain increases manifold. It is observed that coral reefs get affected by sewage pollution the world over. The sewage water dumped in oceans can affect the coral reefs to a great extent. The toxins present in polluted water inhibit the growth of corals.

Pollution of Drinking and Irrigation Water

Water bodies in their natural form contain small amounts of chemical compounds like bicarbonates, nitrates, chlorides, sulfates, etc. Rise in the amount of such compounds may cause many problems. For example, water becomes unsuitable for drinking and irrigation. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) present in water should caping-lawn-care/ be less than 500 mg/gram for water to be considered potable. Saline water is not considered suitable for irrigation either. Use of such kind of water for agricultural purpose leads to salinization of soil, which in turn causes soil erosion.

Treatment of Sewage Water

If sewage water is treated before its release into rivers, most problems associated with pollution would be solved. Removal of contaminants is the main objective of treatment of sewage water. Before the actual treatment of water, effluents are pretreated.

o The process of pre-treatment helps in the separation of oils, greases, gravel and sand from polluted water. This process is carried out by filtration of sewage water.

o Biological wastes dissolved in water are treated with microbes. It helps in converting wastes into a solid mass which can be easily separated later on.

o Once the biological treatment is over, partially-pure effluents are treated with chemical di sinfectants. The water treated in treatment plants can be used in golf courses, for watering lawns and also in agriculture for irrigation.

o Sewage treatment plants generate clear and clean water. Some of the treatment plants dispose the wastes into oceans. This is one form of pollution and it should prove to be harmful for the environment.

Restoration of wetlands is one of the important means of treating sewage water. Wetlands allow to process sewage water naturally, without the use of any artificial method/technique. The idea behind restoring wetlands is that bacteria present in them would dilute the nitrates and phosphates. The same process takes place in sewage water treatment plants except that, here (in wetlands) it is carried out naturally.

Sewage water treatment is useful in today's world where environmental issues are of prime concern. Through the process of treatment, efforts need to be taken to purify effluents. It should benefit not only human beings but also the varied flora and fauna of our planet. Let's pledge to keep our environment clean and the harmful effects of sewage pollution at bay.

Hamas: Cutting electricity to Gaza would be 'catastrophic'

Gaza's militant Hamas rulers warned of renewed violence Monday if Israel acquiesces to Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas' wishes and reduces its electricity supply to the isolated territory.

Gaza's 2 million residents already get by with only four hours of electricity a day. In an effort to push his Hamas rivals out of power, Abbas says his West Bank government will stop paying Israel to provide electricity.

That has put Israel in the tough spot of having to choose between siding with Hamas in the internal Palestinian struggle or risking a humanitarian crisis in the impoverished coastal strip.

An Israeli official confirmed that Israel is preparing to reduce the amount of power it supplies to Gaza, at the request of the Palestinian Authority. The official estimated that the reduction would limit power in Gaza to three hours a day.

The official said that Israel was searching for international donors to make up the difference, but that Israel would not itse lf pay for Gaza's power. It was not clear when the reductions would take effect. The official was not authorized to discuss the matter on the record and spoke on condition of anonymity.

"This Israeli decision is dangerous and catastrophic," said Hamas spokesman Abdulatif al-Qanou. "This virtually speeds up the deterioration and explosion of the situation in the Gaza Strip."

After repeated failed reconciliation attempts, Abbas has tried to squeeze Hamas financially in recent months, hoping to force it to cede control of Gaza, which the Islamic militant group has ruled for the last decade. He slashed salaries of his employees there, stopped payments for ex-prisoners and reinstated taxes on the power plant's fuel.

Most recently, he asked Israel to reduce Gaza electricity by 40 percent. The Israeli decision appears to Electrician Service College Station be seeking a compromise.

"Let's not forget, this is Abu Mazen's decision," Israel's Public Security Minister Gilad Erdan told Army Radio Monday, referring to Abbas by his nickname. "Should Israeli citizens pay the electric bill of the residents of Gaza? Of course that doesn't make sense."

Gazans have been trying to cope with the lengthy outages. The poor have been relying on battery-operated lights, the middle class on communal generators and the few wealthy families have turned to solar en ergy.

But authorities warn of an impending crisis in health care and the environment. Each day, 120,000 cubic meter of untreated sewage are discharged into the sea.

The Gaza electricity distribution company says it has not yet been informed of the Israeli decision to slash electricity, but warned of "serious deterioration" if the cuts went into effect.

"We barely provide four hours of electricity in Gaza and in some neighborhoods they get three," said Mohammed Thabet, a spokesman for the company. "We can't predict how many hours people can get if the electricity is reduced."

Gisha, an advocacy group pushing for increased movement of people and goods across Gaza's borders, sent a letter to Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman warning of a severe crisis if the cuts went through. It said reducing the supply to Gaza was a "red line that must not be crossed."


Associated Press writer Josef Federman in Jerusalem contributed to this report.

Wednesday, 14 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Painting (disambiguation).

"Painter" redirects here. For other uses, see Painter (disambiguation).

The Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable paintings in the world.

Painting is the practice of app lying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.

Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, gesture (as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.[2] Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism).

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblic al scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin.

In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, as well as objects. The term painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders.


1 Elements of Painting

1.1 Color and tone

1.2 Non-traditional elements

1.3 Rhythm

2 History

3 Aesthetics and theory

4 Painting media

4.1 Oil

4.2 Pastel

4.3 Acrylic

4.4 Watercolor

4.5 Ink

4.6 Hot wax or encaustic

4.7 Fresco

4.8 Gouache

4.9 Enamel

4.10 Spray paint

4 .11 Tempera

4.12 Water miscible oil paint

4.13 Digital painting

5 Painting styles

5.1 Western

5.1.1 Modernism Impressionism Abstract styles Outsider art Photorealism Surrealism

5.2 Far Eastern

5.3 Islamic

5.4 Indian

5.5 African

5.6 Contemporary art

5.7 1950s

5.8 1960s

5.9 1970s

5.10 1980s

5.11 1990s

5.12 2000s

6 Types of painting

6.1 Allegory

6.2 Bodegn

6.3 Body painting

6.4 Figure painting

6.5 Illustration painting

6.6 Landscape painting

6.7 Portrait painting

6.8 Still life

6.9 Veduta

7 See also

8 Notes

9 Further reading

Elements of Painting

Chen Hongshou (1598-1652), Leaf album painting (Ming Dynasty)

Color and tone

Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe,[3]Kandinsky,[4] and Newton,[5] have written their own color theory.

Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C?. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).

Painters deal practically with pigments,[6] so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear--sound in music (like a C note) is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and "coloration" is to painting as the specific ti mbre of musical instruments is to music. These elements do not necessarily form a melody (in music) of themselves; rather, they can add different contexts to it.

Shows a pointillist painting of a trombone soloist.

Circus Sideshow (French: Parade de cirque), Georges Seurat, 1887-88

Non-traditional elements

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different mate rials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.


Rhythm is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations--form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work. This is because the aesthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetical value.


Main article: History of painting

Cave painting of aurochs, (French: Bos primigenius primi genius), Lascaux, France, prehistoric art

The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, which some historians believe are about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, abstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40,000 years old.[7] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world--in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, Mexico,[8] etc. In Western cultures, oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex tra ditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and complex traditions.

The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the decades after the first photograph was produced in 1829, photographic processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. A series of art movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries--notably Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Dadaism--challenged the Renaissance view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.

Modern and Contemporary Art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of conce pt, leading some to say, in the 1960s, that painting as a serious art form is dead. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century defies the previous "declarations" of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Artists continue to make important works of art in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments--their merits are left to the public and the marketplace to judge.

Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermedia painting, Assemblage paint ing, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation.

Aesthetics and theory

Main article: Theory of painting

A relief against a wall shows a bearded man reaching up with his hands as his clothes are draped over his body.

Apelles or the Art of painting (detail), relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334-1336

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for 18th- and 19th-century philosophers such as Kant and Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular. Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth--it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting. By the time of Leonardo, painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Italian: L a Pittura cosa mentale" ("English: painting is a thing of the mind").[9] Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former. Although he did not refer to painting in particular, this concept was taken up by painters such as J.M.W. Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.

Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and, in his aesthetic essay, wrote that painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music, for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[10][11] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.[12][13] In his essay, Kandinsky maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do.

Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, before looking at their meaning for the viewer at the time, and finally analyzing their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.[14]

In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting--before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other--is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[15] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world--nature--which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[16] In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:

A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.[17]

Painting media

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.


Honor Daumier (1808-79), The Painter. Oil on panel with visible brushstrokes.

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medi um of drying oil, such as linseed oil, which was widely used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.


Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait of Louis XV of France. (1748) Pastel.

Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[18] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.[19] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.


Jungle Arc by Ray Burggraf. Acrylic paint on wood. (1998)

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend col ors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but in other regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly.


Manfred on the Jungfrau (1837), John Martin. Watercolor painting

Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigmen ts suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Finger-painting with watercolor paints originated in China. Watercolor pencils (water-soluble color pencils) may be used either wet or dry.


Landscapes of the Four Seasons (1486), Sessh? T?y?. Ink and light color on paper.

Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink's carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.

Hot wax or encaustic

Encaustic Angel (2009), Martina Loos. Beeswax crayons, encaustic iron and hotpen.

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface--usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used--some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cool s, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.


White Angel, a fresco from Mile?eva, Serbia

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [af'fres:ko], which derives from the Latin word for fresh. Fresc oes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.


Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.[20]


Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750-850 degrees Celsius (1380-1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects,[21] but have also been used for other purposes. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures.[22] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[23]

Spray paint

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists.


Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the first centuries CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint commonly called tempera (though it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

Water miscible oil paint

Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.

Digital painting

Main article: digital painting

Digital painting is a m ethod of creating an art object (painting) digitally and/or a technique for making digital art in the computer. As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting medium such as acrylic paint, oils, ink, watercolor, etc. and applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas cloth, paper, polyester etc. by means of computer software driving industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors and other supplies. The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore, digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting technique to create the particular piece of work on the computer.[24]

Painting styles

Main article: Style (visual arts)

Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:



Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.[25][26] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[27]


The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners , and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refuss, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.

Abstract styles

Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition that may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[28][29]Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement that combined the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools--such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic an d, some feel, nihilistic.[30]

Action painting, sometimes called gestural abstraction, is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied.[31] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably).

Other modernist styles include:

Color Field

Lyrical Abstraction

Hard-edge painting



Pop art

Outsider art

The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French:[a? b?yt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art c reated outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.[32] Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work.


Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism evolved from Pop Art[33][34][35] and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism.

Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high -resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.[36]


Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader Andr Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.

See also: Outline of painting Styles of painting

Far Eastern


Tang Dynasty

Ming Dynasty

Shan shui

Ink and wash painting

Hua niao

Southern School

Zhe School

Wu School




Rimpa school


Kan? school

Shij? school




Persian miniature

Mughal miniature

Ottoman miniature


Oriya school

Bengal school









Kerala mural painting



Contemporary ar t


Abstract Expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Lyrical Abstraction

New York Figurative Expressionism

New York School


Abstract expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Abstract Imagists

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Color field

Computer art

Conceptual art



Hard-edge painting

Lyrical Abstraction



New York School

Nouveau Ralisme

Op Art

Performance art

Pop Art


Washington Color School

Kinetic art


Arte Povera

Ascii Art

Bad Painting

Body art

Artist's book

Feminist art

Installation art

Land Art

Lowbrow (art movement)



Process Art

Video art

Funk art

Pattern and Decoration


Appropriation art

Culture jamming


Electronic art

Figuration Libre

Graffiti Art

Live art

Mail art

Postmodern art

Neo-conceptual art



Sound art

Transgressive art

Transhumanist Art

Video installation

Institutional Critique


Bio art


Cynical Realism

Digital Art

Information art

Internet art



New media art

Software art

New European Painting

Young British Artists


Digital Painting

Classical realism

Relational art

Street art




Videogame art


VJ art

Virtual art

Indigenous Art

Types of painting


Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye, and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.


Bodegn or Still Life with Pottery Jars, by Francisco de Zurbarn. 1636, Oil on canvas; 46 x 84 cm; Museo del Prado, Madrid

In Spanish art, a bodegn is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands (then Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many subgenres: the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'oeil, the flow er bouquet, and the vanitas. In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table.

Body painting

Body painting is a form of body art. Unlike tattoo and other forms of body art, body painting is temporary, painted onto the human skin, and lasts for only several hours, or at most (in the case of Mehndi or "henna tattoo") a couple of weeks. Body painting that is limited to the face is known as face painting. Body painting is also referred to as (a form of) temporary tattoo; large scale or full-body painting is more commonly referred to as body painting, while smaller or more detailed work is generally referred to as temporary tattoos.

Figure painting

A figure painting is a work of art in any of the painting media with the primary subject being the human figure, whether clothed or nude. Figure painting may also refer to the activity of cre ating such a work. The human figure has been one of the contrast subjects of art since the first stone age cave paintings, and has been reinterpreted in various styles throughout history.[37] Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and douard Manet.

Two Lovers by Reza Abbasi, 1630

Illustration painting

Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable art works that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and United States.

Landscape painting

Main article: Landscape art

Painting by Andreas Achenbach, who specialized in the "sublime" mode of landscape painting, in which man is dwarfed by nature's might and fury.[38]The Walters Art Museum.

Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases.

Portrait painting

Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo.[39]

Still life

A still life is a wor k of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects--which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.


A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Bril painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas.

See also

20th-century Western painting

Cobweb painting

Graphic arts

Index of painting-related articles

Outline of painting


^ "Paint[1] - Definition". 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2014-03-13.

^ Perry, Lincoln (Summer 2014). "The Music of Painting". The American Scholar. 83 (3): 85.

^ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe's theory of colours, John Murray, London 1840

^ Wassily Kandinsky Concerning The Spiritual In Art, [Translated By Michael T. H. Sadler, pdf.

^ A letter to the Roya l Society presenting A new theory of light and colours Isaac Newton, 1671 pdf

^ Pigments at ColourLex

^ "How Old is Australia's Rock Art?". Retrieved 2014-03-13.


^ Rollason, C., & Mittapalli, R. (2002). Modern criticism. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 196. ISBN 812690187X

^ Craig, Edward. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Genealogy to Iqbal, page 278. Routledge, 1998. 1998. ISBN9780415187091. Retrieved 2014-03-13.

^ "Painting and music are the specially romantic arts. Lastly, as a union of painting and music comes poetry, where the sensuous element is more than ever subordinate to the spirit." Excerpted from Encyclopdia Britannica 1911

^ Franciscono, Marcel, Paul Klee: His Work and Thought, part 6 'The Bauhaus and Dsseldorf', chap. 'Klee's theory courses', p. 246 and under 'notes to p ages 245-54' p.365

^ Barasch, Moshe (2000) Theories of art - from impressionism to Kandinsky, part IV 'Abstract art', chap. 'Color' pp.332-3

^ Jones, Howard (October 2014). "The Varieties of Aesthetic Experience". Journal for Spiritual & Consciousness Studies. 37 (4): 541-252.

^ Encyclopedia Encarta Archived 4 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Review by art historian David Cohen". Retrieved 2014-03-13.

^ Bell, Julian (2007). Mirror of the World: A New History of Art. Thames and Hudson. p.496. ISBN9780500238370.

^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 312.

^ Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Viking Adult; 5th revised and updated edition, 1991. ISBN 0-670-83701-6

^ Cohn, Marjorie B., Wash and Gouache, Fogg Museum, 1977.

^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: V iking, 1970, p. 375.

^ McNally, Rika Smith, "Enamel", Oxford Art Online

^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 371.

^ "What is digital painting? - Turning Point Arts". Turning Point Arts. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2017-05-17.

^ Barth, John (1979) The Literature of Replenishment, later republished in The Friday Book'(1984)'.

^ Graff, Gerald (1975) Babbitt at the Abyss: The Social Context of Postmodern. American Fiction, TriQuarterly, No. 33 (Spring 1975), pp. 307-37; reprinted in Putz and Freese, eds., Postmodernism and American Literature.

^ Gardner, Helen, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art Through the Ages (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991). ISBN 0-15-503770-6. p. 953.

^ Arnheim, Rudolph, 1969, Visual Thinking

^ Key, Joan (September 2009). "Future Use: Abstract Painting". Third Text. 23 (5): 557-563.

^ Sh apiro, David/Cecile (2000): Abstract Expressionism. The politics of apolitical painting. p. 189-190 In: Frascina, Francis (2000): Pollock and After. The critical debate. 2nd ed. London: Routledge

^ Boddy-Evans, Marion. "Art Glossary: Action Painting". Retrieved 20 August 2006.

^ Cardinal, Roger, Outsider Art, London, 1972

^ Lindey, Christine Superrealist Painting and Sculpture, William Morrow and Company, New York, 1980, pp. 27-33.

^ Chase, Linda, Photorealism at the Millennium, The Not-So-Innocent Eye: Photorealism in Context. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York, 2002. pp 14-15.

^ Nochlin, Linda, The Realist Criminal and the Abstract Law II, Art In America. 61 (November - December 1973), P. 98.

^ Bredekamp, Horst, Hyperrealism - One Step Beyond. Tate Museum, Publishers, UK. 2006. p. 1

^ Droste, Flip (October 2014). "Cave Paintings of the Early Stone Age". Semiotica. 2014 (202): 155-165.

^ "Clearing Up--Coast of Sicily". The Walters Art Museum.

^ "Mona Lisa - Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo". Louvre Museum. Archived from the original on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-13.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paintings.

Look up painting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Daniel, H. (1971). Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting; Mythological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, Allegorical, and Topical. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc.

W. Stanley Jr. Taft, James W. Mayer, The Science of Paintings, First Edition, Springer, 2000.







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Friday, 9 June 2017

Alabama teen, mayor hope to change city ordinance on lawn mowing license

Many Americans remember summers spent as a teen, learning about the value of money by opening up a lemonade stand, babysitting or cutting the neighborhood lawns.

Now the mayor of one city in Alabama is hoping to change a city ordinance to keep the tradition alive.

Teens in the Birmingham suburb of Gardendale are technically required to have a $110 business license to cut lawns.

The ordinance is not new. It was enacted in 2007, and Gardendale Mayor Stan Hogeland told Fox News that it was never intended to apply to teens making a little extra pocket money when school lets out.

It all began when 15-year-old Alainna Parris mowed the lawn of her grandparents and a few neighbors last Thursday. She was hoping to earn extra money for a missionary trip, her grandparents Elton and Melba Campbell, told Fox News.

A man with a professional lawn care business, someone whom no one involved would name but who had been servicing many of the neighborhood lawns for years, reportedly approached one of the homeowners.

He allegedly told the homeowner that he noticed the young lady had been mowing lawns in the subdivision and threatened to call City Hall if he saw her mowing again without a business license.

That neighbor called Alainna's grandparents, and her grandfather shared his confusion in a private community message board on Facebook.

"I did not intend for all this to happen when I posted my question," Elton explained. "I simply wanted to kno w if a teenager had to get a business license."

Hogeland, who was born and raised in Gardendale, has served as a city employee for 35 years. He said that the incident was a first.

Though the ordinance as it now stands would legally require a teen who mows lawns, or babysits or even washes cars for pocket money to obtain a business license, he said that that that wasn't the "spirit or intent" of the ordinance.

"Typically," Hogeland explained, "if you're doing business, whether it's in Gardendale or New York City, if you're performing a service and you get paid for it, you're supposed Sprinkler System Installation Greenville to have a business license."

However, "it was never meant to deal with kids cutting grass," the mayor emphasized. "My clerk, in all her research reviewing the past five years, can't find anyone applying for the license in these kinds of cases."

The mayor added, "it's not something we look for, not something we've ever dealt with, because there was no need to deal with it. These are kids earning extra money in the summer, like they always do."

Hogeland said he's concerned young people will now worry that they will get in trouble, looking over their shoulder for a policeman or a city official every time they perform a task for some spending money - and he wants to change that.

At a Monday night council meeting, he plans to address the controversy over the ordinance and figure out how to clarify and change the policy to allow young people to mow lawns without a business license.

"My intent is to get something in our ordinance that tells that young lady that you don't have to look over your shoulder, we got your back, we've got you taken care of," Hogeland said.

For her part, Alainna told Fox News that she d idn't feel threatened, but felt that "this whole thing has been blown out of proportion."

She said that she mowed lawns last year and there were no issues. "I don't know what made this year different," she said, adding, "I do hope that there is some kind of change that what make it safe for anyone under 17 or 18 years old to mow a lawn without being made to think it's a business. I'm looking forward to going to the council meeting on Monday to see if any changes will be made."

As for the Mayor, he says "it's commendable and I want kids to do it. They're learning the value of a dollar, and the value and rewards of hard work, they're also learning the value of seeing you create a job well done, stand back and say: 'I did that, I'm pretty proud of myself.'

"That's the kind of thing you want going through a kid's head, they can later move out into the workforce. Do something you'll be proud of, and reap the rewards of it by getting paid, that's the American job description."